Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell’s biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own small chromosomes.
Even though you have roughly one hundred trillion cells, a normal person has only about 1.75 ounces (50 grams) of ATP in their entire body at any one time. Each mitochondrial ATP cycle can create about six hundred ATP molecules per second at maximum demand. That means that if you eat 2,500 calories a day, your mitochondria recycle and reuse those 1.75 ounces of ATP so many times that it’s the equivalent of creating four hundred pounds of ATP over the course of the day.
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mitochondria, they’re also in charge of other essential tasks such as transmitting signals between cells, cellular differentiation (the process by which one type of cell transforms into another), and maintaining the cycle of cell growth and cell death.
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